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A ShortCourse Book
Photo Course: An Interactive Multimedia eText 2nd edition

Photo Course: An Interactive Multimedia eText 2nd edition

Photo Course: An Interactive Multimedia eText

Finally, a visually oriented book on digital photography designed to be read on the screen or projected for a group using Adobe's free Acrobat reader. The eBook version is a powerful teaching and learning tool because embedded in its pages are 90 clickable links that integrate animations, movies, audio, other documents, and links to Web sites that bring to life the core concepts of digital photography. This text is available as a traditional 303 page large-format (8.5 by 11) spiral bound book printed in black and white with 16 pages of color, and as a full-color, fully searchable PDF eBook you can order on a CD. The eBook also includes links to animations and other resources that bring to life the core concepts of digital photography.

 

Preface

As a student or teacher of digital photography this multimedia eText™ may be what you’re looking for. Its unique visual approach introduces the core concepts of digital photography using photos, drawings, and interactive animations instead of long pages of text.

In addition to this unique visual, animated design, you may also notice that the eText is titled simply "Photo Course" although it’s a text on digital photography. Why is this? Because times have changed and almost all photography now is digital. Descriptive adjectives now have to be added to photography books that cover the use of film, not books that cover digital. This is not to denigrate film photography. It is a wonderful media that has served artists, journalists and others well for over a century. As time passes and film leaves the core curriculum it will find a welcome home in courses on alternative and historical processes along with daguerreotypes, ambrotypes and tin types.

Although designed for use as the core text in a semester-length course, this eText is so inexpensive you may find it useful in other settings including:
  • As a supplement, or projectible teaching aide in courses where you are using "The Textbook of Digital Photography" as the main text.
  • As the textbook in a short course offered in adult education, community education, or other settings where only part of the material is covered in the course and the rest is read by students on their own or used as a reference during the course and after.
  • As an individualized learning eText™ on your own computer.
  • As a source of projects or assignments you can assign your students or yourself.
In this eText you are introduced to two major aspects of photography; the underlying concepts and the creative applications.

Typical concepts include how the shutter speed controls the portrayal of motion in an image, how the aperture controls the depth of field, and how flash falls off with distance following the inverse square law. A typical creative application is using slow sync flash to combine all three of these concepts to create photos that are both sharp and blurred with a lighter background. As you’ll see there are only a few concepts, but a countless number of creative applications that use these concepts in a variety of combinations.

Contents

Cover 1
Copyright 2
Preface 3
How to Use this eText™ 4
Taking Your First Pictures—It's All About Workflow 5
Taking Your First Pictures—It's All About Workflow, con't. 6
Taking Your First Pictures—It's All About Workflow, con't. 7
Contents 8
Contents, con't. 9
Contents, con't. 10
Contents, con't. 11

CHAPTER 1
DIGITAL IMAGES & DIGITAL CAMERAS ..... 12

1.1 History–Prephotography ........ 13
1.2 History–The Very Beginning of Photography ........ 14
1.3 History–It Wasn't Easy at First ........ 15
1.4 History–Some Things Never Change .. 16
1.5 History–But Some Things do Change ........ 17
1.6 Going Digital—The Dawn of Digital Photography ........ 18
1.7 Going Digital—The First Images ........ 19
1.8 Going Digital—The First Digital Cameras ........ 20
1.9 Types of Digital Cameras–Point and Shoot Cameras ........ 21
1.10 Types of Digital Cameras–Camera Phones ........ 22
1.11 Types of Digital Cameras–Disposable Point and Shoot Cameras ........ 23
1.12 Types of Digital Cameras–High-end Fixed Lens Cameras ........ 24
1.13 Types of Digital Cameras—The Rangefinder ........ 25
1.14 Types of Digital Cameras–The Single-Lens Reflex (SLR) ........ 26
1.15 Types of Digital Cameras–Compact System Cameras ........ 27
1.16 Types of Digital Cameras–Professional/ Studio Cameras ... 28
1.17 Composing Images–Introduction ..... 29
1.18 Composing Images–Orientation ...... 30
1.19 Composing Images–Optical Viewfinders ........ 31
1.20 Composing Images–LCD Monitors ... 32
1.21 Composing Images–LCD Monitors, con't. ........ 33
1.22 Composing Images–Electronic Viewfinders ........ 34
1.23 Composing Images–Single-Lens Reflexes (SLRs) ........ 35
1.24 Taking Pictures–The Shutter Button ........ 36
1.25 Taking Pictures–Continuous Mode .... 37
1.26 Taking Pictures–Audio and Video Clips ........ 38
1.27 What is a Digital Photo–Pixels ........ 39
1.28 The Image Sensor—Replacing Film .. 40
1.29 The Image Sensor—Sizes ........ 41
1.30 The Image Sensor—Types ........ 42
1.31 The Image Sensor—Types, con't. ... 43
1.32 Digital Color—RGB ........ 44
1.33 Digital Color—RGB ........ 45
1.34 Digital Color—CMYK ...... 46
1.35 Image Sizes ........ 47
1.36 Image Sizes–Calculating ........ 48
1.37 Image Sizes–Pixelization ........ 49
1.38 Image Sizes—Cropping ........ 50
1.39 Image Sizes—Sharpness & Detail .... 51
1.40 Image Sizes–The Other "Resolution".. 52
1.41 Image Sizes—Standard Screen Sizes 53
1.42 Image Sizes—Calculating Screen Display ........ 54
1.43 Image Sizes—Prints ........ 55
1.44 Image Quality–Compression ........ 56
1.45 File Formats ........ 57
1.46 Image Quality–A Dirty Little Secret .. 58

CHAPTER 2
THE DIGITAL DARKROOM .......... 59

2.1 Storing Images in the Camera .... 60
2.2 Storing Images in the Camera, Con't.. 61
2.3 Transferring Photos–Card Readers and Slots .... 62
2.4 Transferring Photos–Cable Connections .... 63
2.5 Transferring Photos–Cable Connections .... 64
2.6 Transferring Photos–Wireless Connections .... 65
2.7 How Photos are Stored in Your Camera and Computer .... 66
2.8 How Photos are Stored in Your Camera and Computer .... 67
2.9 Transferring Images to the Computer–Procedures .... 68
2.10 Organizing Your Photo Files .... 69
2.11 Storing Images—Hard Drives & Solid State Drives .... 70
2.12 Storing Images—On the Road .... 71
2.13 Storing Images—Optical Discs .... 72
2.14 Optical Disc Burning Software .... 73
2.15 Labeling Optical Discs .... 74
2.16 Image Management—Thumbnail Viewers .... 75
2.17 Image Management—Asset Managers .... 76
2.18 Image Management—Asset Managers, con't. .... 77
2.19 Photo-editing Tools—The Big Two .... 78
2.20 Photo-editing Tools—Editing to Improve .... 79
2.21 Photo-editing Tools—Editing to Change .... 80
2.22 Photo-editing Tools—Resizing, Cropping and Rotating .... 81
2.23 Photo-editing Tools—Adjusting the Tonal Range .... 82
2.24 Photo-editing Tools—Removing Color Casts .... 83
2.25 Photo-editing Tools—Removing Color Casts, A Word About Neutral .... 84
2.26 Photo-editing Tools—Sharpening .... 85
2.27 Photo-editing Tools—Brightness and Contrast .... 86
2.28 Photo-editing Tools—Hue and Saturation .... 87
2.29 Photo-editing Tools—Transforming .... 88
2.30 Photo-editing Tools—Touching Up .... 89
2.31 Photo-editing Tools—Selecting .... 90
2.32 Photo-editing Tools—Adding Text .... 91
2.33 Photo-editing Tools—Layers .... 92
2.34 Photo-editing Tools—Filters .... 93
2.35 Photo-editing Tools—Actions .... 94

CHAPTER 3
CONTROLLING EXPOSURE ....... 95

3.1 Understanding Exposure .... 100
3.2 Understanding Exposure, con't. .... 101
3.3 Understanding Exposure–The Controls .... 102
3.4 Understanding Exposure–Why Choices? .... 103
3.5 Understanding Exposure–The Range of Choices .... 104
3.6 Understanding Exposure–Analogy #1 .... 105
3.7 Understanding Exposure–Analogy #2 .... 106
3.8 Exposure Modes—Selecting .... 107
3.9 Exposure Modes—Auto & Programmed .... 108
3.10 Exposure Modes—Scene Modes .... 109
3.11 Shutter-Priority–Introduction .... 110
3.12 Shutter-Priority–Types of Shutters .... 111
3.13 Shutter Priority—Freezing and Blurring Motion .... 112
3.14 Aperture-Priority—Introduction .... 113
3.15 Aperture-Priority—Depth of Field .... 114
3.16 Manual Mode .... 115
3.17 Manual Mode–Bulb .... 116
3.18 How Your Exposure System Works—Middle Gray .... 117
3.19 When Automatic Exposure Works Well .... 118
3.20 Why Autoexposure Doesn't Always Work .... 119
3.21 When to Increase Exposure—Light Scenes .... 120
3.22 When to Increase Exposure—Light Backgrounds .... 121
3.23 When to Increase Exposure—Foggy and Misty Scenes .... 122
3.24 When to Decrease Exposure—Dark Scenes .... 123
3.25 When to Decrease Exposure—Dark Backgrounds .... 124
3.26 Metering a Scene .... 125
3.27 Metering a Scene, con't. .... 126
3.28 Adjusting Exposure—Exposure Compensation .... 127
3.29 Adjusting Exposure—Exposure Lock .... 128
3.30 Adjusting Exposure—Exposure Lock, con't. .... 129
3.31 Adjusting Exposure—Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB)- .... 130
3.32 Expanding Your Exposure Range .... 131
3.33 Evaluating Your Exposures—Histograms .... 132
3.34 Evaluating Your Exposures—Histograms When Shooting .... 133
3.35 Histograms—Normal and Good .... 134
3.36 Histograms—Middle Gray .... 135
3.37 Histograms—High Key .... 136
3.38 Histograms—Night Scene .... 137
3.39 Histograms—Low Key .... 138
3.40 Histograms & Exposure .... 139

CHAPTER 4
CONTROLLING SHARPNESS ..... 137

4.1 Eliminating Camera Movement .... 138
4.2 Eliminating Camera Movement—Holding the Camera .... 139
4.3 Eliminating Camera Movement—Tripods and Monopods .... 140
4.4 Eliminating Camera Movement—Tripod Heads .... 141
4.5 Eliminating Camera Movement—Tripod Quick Release Systems .... 142
4.6 Eliminating Camera Movement—Shutter Release .... 143
4.7 Eliminating Camera Movement—Shutter Release, con't .... 144
4.8 Eliminating Camera Movement—The ISO Setting .... 145
4.9 Eliminating Camera Movement—ISO and Noise .... 146
4.10 How to Photograph Motion Sharply .... 147
4.11 Shutter Speed and Sharpness .... 148
4.12 Focus .... 149
4.13 Types of Focus .... 150
4.14 Autofocus Facts .... 151
4.15 Autofocus—Types Of .... 152
4.16 Autofocus—Focus Points .... 153
4.17 Focus—Focus Lock .... 154
4.18 Manual Focus—Ways it's Done .... 155
4.19 Depth of Field .... 156
4.20 Depth of Field—The Reasons Why .... 157
4.21 Controlling Depth of Field—The Influences .... 158
4.22 Controlling Depth of Field—Checking .... 159
4.23 Controlling Depth of Field—Shallow .... 160
4.24 Controlling Depth of Field—Shallow, con't. .... 161
4.25 Controlling Depth of Field—Shallow, con't. .... 162
4.26 Controlling Depth of Field—Deep .... 163
4.27 Controlling Depth of Field—Hyperfocal Distance .... 164
4.28 Sharpness Isn't Everything—Using the Shutter Speed .... 165
4.29 Sharpness Isn't Everything—Using the Aperture .... 166
4.30 Panning the Camera .... 167

CHAPTER 5
CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR .. 168

5.1 The Color of Subjects .... 169
5.2 The Color of Sources .... 170
5.3 White Balance .... 171
5.4 White Balance, con't. .... 172
5.5 White Balance, con't. .... 173
5.6 Color Management—Color Spaces .... 174
5.7 White Balance and Time of Day .... 175
5.8 Sunsets and Sunrises as the Subject .... 176
5.9 Sunsets and Sunrises—As the Subject .... 177
5.10 Sunsets and Sunrises—As the Light Source .... 178
5.11 Moonsets and Moonrises .... 179
5.12 Weather—Snow .... 180
5.13 Weather—Haze, Mist and Clouds .... 181
5.14 Weather—Rainbows .... 182
5.15 Weather—Rainbows .... 183
5.16 White Balance and Mixed Lighting .... 184
5.17 Photographing at Night .... 185
5.18 The Direction of Light—Backlighting .... 186
5.19 The Direction of Light—Backlighting, con't. .... 187
5.20 The Direction of Light—Backlighting, con't .... 188
5.21 Photographing Light Sources .... 189
5.22 The Quality of Light—Diffuse .... 190
5.23 The Quality of Light—Direct .... 191

CHAPTER 6
USING LENSES ........... 192

6.1 Lenses—Pinholes .... 193
6.2 Lenses—Reading Lens Information .... 194
6.3 Lenses—Fixed or Interchangeable .... 195
6.4 Focal Length—Definition .... 196
6.5 Focal Length—And Aperture .... 197
6.6 Focal Length—Angle of View & Magnification .... 198
6.7 Focal Length—Image Stabilization .... 199
6.8 Focal Length–Effect of Sensor Sizes .... 200
6.9 Focal Length–Effect of Sensor Sizes, con't. .... 201
6.10 Lenses—A Tower of Babel .... 202
6.11 Zoom Lenses—Introduction .... 203
6.12 Zooming—Fixed Lens Cameras .... 204
6.13 Zooming—SLRs .... 205
6.14 Zoom Lenses—Optical and Digital .... 206
6.15 Normal Lenses .... 207
6.16 Wide Angle Lenses .... 208
6.17 Wide Angle Lenses, con't. .... 209
6.18 Wide Angle Lenses, con't. .... 210
6.19 Distortion with Wide-Angle Lenses .... 211
6.20 Distortion with Wide-Angle Lenses, con't. .... 212
6.21 Long or Telephoto Lenses .... 213
6.22 Long or Telephoto Lenses, con't. .... 214
6.23 Perspective .... 215
6.24 Macro Lenses and Macro Mode .... 216
6.25 Macro Lenses and Macro Mode, con't. .... 217
6.26 Macro Lenses and Macro Mode, con't. .... 218
6.27 Macro Lenses and Macro Mode, con't. .... 219
6.28 Tilt-Shift Lenses .... 220
6.29 Lens Accessories .... 221
6.30 Lens Accessories, con't. .... 222

CHAPTER 7
ON-CAMERA FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY ........... 223

7.1 Flash—The Beginnings .... 224
7.2 Built-in Flash .... 225
7.3 External Flash .... 226
7.4 External Flash, con't. .... 227
7.5 Ring and Twin Flash .... 228
7.6 Flash Accessories .... 229
7.7 Autoflash .... 230
7.8 Flash and Shutter Speeds .... 231
7.9 Flash and Distance .... 232
7.10 Red-eye Reduction .... 233
7.11 Fill Flash .... 234
7.12 Fill Flash, con't. .... 235
7.13 Flash Off .... 236
7.14 Slow Sync Flash—Automatic Modes .... 237
7.15 Slow Sync Flash—Manual Control ....... 238
7.16 First and Second Curtain Sync ... 239
7.17 Controlling Flash Exposures—FE Lock .... 240
7.18 Controlling Flash Exposures—Flash Exposure Compensation .... 241
7.19 Controlling Flash Exposures—Flash Exposure Compensation .... 242
7.20 High-speed Sync .... 243
7.21 Stroboscopic Flash .... 244
7.22 Flash Guide Numbers .... 245

CHAPTER 8
STUDIO PHOTOGRAPHY ...... 246

8.1 Professional Studios .... 247
8.2 Tabletop Studios .... 248
8.3 Using Studio Strobes .... 249
8.4 Using Continuous Lights .... 250
8.5 Using Multiple Flash Units .... 251
8.6 Understanding Hard and Soft Light .... 252
8.7 Creating Hard Light .... 253
8.8 Creating Soft Light—Reflecting and Diffusing .... 254
8.9 Creating Soft Light—Reflecting and Diffusing, con't. .... 255
8.10 Creating Soft Light—Reflecting and Diffusing, con't. .... 256
8.11 Creating Soft Light—Light Tents .... 257
8.12 Choosing a Background .... 258
8.13 Choosing a Background—Dropping it Out .... 259
8.14 Choosing a Background—Light Panels .... 260
8.15 Positioning the Camera .... 261
8.16 Positioning Lights—Introduction .... 262
8.17 The Main Light .... 263
8.18 The Fill Light .... 264
8.19 The Background Light .... 265
8.20 The Rim Light .... 266
8.21 Putting it All Together—Exposure and White Balance .... 267

CHAPTER 9
DISPLAYING PHOTOS .......... 268

9.1 Displaying & Sharing Digital Photos—Introduction .... 269
9.2 E-mailing Digital Photos .... 270
9.3 E-mailing Digital Photos, con't. .... 271
9.4 Social Networking .... 272
9.5 Slide Shows—On the Computer .... 273
9.6 Slide Shows—On the TV or Screen ...... 274
9.7 Slide Shows—On the TV or Screen, Con't. .... 275
9.8 Slide Shows—On the TV or Screen, Con't. .... 276
9.9 Digital Frames .... 277
9.10 eBooks—PDF Files .... 278
9.11 Creating a Photo Web Site .... 279
9.12 Photo Blogs .... 280

CHAPTER 10
PRINTING PHOTOGRAPHS ..... 281

10.1 Printing—Introduction .... 282
10.2 Printing Colors—CMYK .... 283
10.3 Printers—How an Inkjet Printer Works .... 284
10.4 Printers—How a Dye Sub Printer Works .... 285
10.5 Printers—Drivers .... 286
10.6 Prints—On-line .... 287
10.7 Prints—Locally .... 288
10.8 Prints—Printing Paper .... 289
10.9 Prints—Inks .... 290
10.10 Prints—Matting and Mounting for Protection .... 291
10.11 Prints—Matting and Mounting for Protection, con't. .... 292
10.12 Prints—Framing for Presentation .... 293
10.13 Prints—Hanging for Display .... 294
10.14 Prints—Storing Archivally .... 295
10.15 Photo Albums—Sheet Protectors .... 296
10.16 Photo Albums—Album Kits .... 297
10.17 Photo Albums—Outside Printers .... 298
10.18 Photo Albums—Desktop Publishing .... 299
10.19 Printing Photos .... 300
10.20 Printing Photos—Exploring Print Sizes .... 301
10.21 Understanding Pixels per Inch .... 302
10.22 Exploring Pixels Per Inch .... 303

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